He Spent 24 Years Behind Bars Because Queens Prosecutors Broke The Rules. Was This Their Only Wrongful Conviction?

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They got here up at a time when prosecutors had been anticipated to be robust, and this was one of many hardest places of work round: Queens below District Legal professional Richard Brown. Again then, Queens prosecutors made positive to again their brothers in blue they usually did a greater job locking up the unhealthy guys than anybody else within the metropolis. And if some idealistic decide determined Brown’s rank-and-file had been a little bit overzealous of their pursuit of justice and ordered a brand new trial? So be it. They might at all times strive once more. Self-discipline was virtually by no means referred to as for.

Brad Leventhal rose to function Brown’s high murder prosecutor for greater than a decade. He dealt with dozens of instances, together with the highly-publicized prosecution of Chanel Lewis, a Black man accused of the 2016 homicide of a white jogger, Karina Vetrano, in Howard Seashore. There have been considerations about Lewis’ confession and the prosecution’s introduction of proof mid-trial. However ultimately, Leventhal gained that conviction, and plenty of extra.

Charles Testagrossa was additionally promoted over time, finally becoming a member of Brown’s govt workforce the place he helped form the District Legal professional’s unrelenting strategy to crime for years earlier than taking one other high put up in Nassau County. Brown entrusted Testagrossa with the high-profile, high-pressure job of prosecuting the three NYPD officers who killed Sean Bell, a younger Black man, in a hail of gunfire exterior a strip membership on the eve of his marriage ceremony in 2006. The trial resulted in an acquittal for all of the officers with critics accusing prosecutors of undermining their very own case.

Years earlier than these headline grabbers, in 1999 Leventhal and Testagrossa teamed up on one other career-making case: the brutal murders of a check-cashing retailer proprietor and an off-duty NYPD officer in East Elmhurst. It occurred simply days earlier than Christmas on Astoria Boulevard. A workforce of gunmen attempting to rob the shop had shot them in chilly blood. By Christmas day, two suspects, one 19, the opposite 22, had confessed. And police discovered their different suspects very quickly. Town’s tough-on-crime mayor Rudy Giuliani informed the media that the loss of life penalty was so as. The prosecutors thought so too.




New York's tabloids portrayed Bell as the epitome of evil, a cold-blooded killer.

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New York’s tabloids portrayed Bell because the epitome of evil, a cold-blooded killer.


Reveals in courtroom submitting from attorneys for Bell, Johnson and Bolt.

From the skin, it regarded like Leventhal and Testagrossa did their jobs nicely. They ran with the confessions that police had secured for them. They shut down protection makes an attempt to muddy the waters about who did the crime. Backside line: they secured justice for grieving households and took the criminals off the streets for an outraged public.

That’s the story the courts and most New Yorkers believed for greater than twenty years. Then all of it fell aside.

Final month, the three Black males they despatched to jail in 1999 and 2000 for these murders in East Elmhurst—George Bell, Gary Johnson, and Rohan Bolt—had been launched. The decide who set them free expressly blamed Leventhal, Testagrossa, and their colleagues on the Queens District Legal professional’s Workplace for locating methods to “cover proof” that will have revealed different credible suspects and for making false statements to the courtroom of their quest for convictions.

Prosecutors have an obligation to reveal favorable info to defendants. And at a listening to final month, Queens Decide Joseph Zayas famous this duty was all of the extra acute on this case as a result of the DA’s Workplace sought the loss of life penalty for one of many younger males police had arrested.

As a substitute, the Queens prosecution workforce “utterly abdicated its truth-seeking position,” he mentioned, “maybe as a result of it knew that the proof being sought by the protection would considerably undermine the chance of acquiring a conviction.”

Within the aftermath of the courtroom’s blistering choice, Leventhal and Testagrossa, by now veteran prosecutors, resigned. Neither has responded to repeated requests for remark.

Now everyone seems to be ready to see what occurs subsequent.

Final yr, Melinda Katz, who ran to exchange Richard Brown on a platform of reform, took over the Queens DA’s Workplace, the place she instituted quite a few reforms and new initiatives, together with a strong Conviction Integrity Unit. That unit carried out an investigation into this case. In response, Katz agreed to vacate the conviction, however characterised the prosecutors’ errors within the case as “inadvertent.”

“For many years, these males sought unsuccessfully to have their convictions overturned,” the Queens District Legal professional’s Workplace mentioned in an announcement. “Nevertheless it wasn’t till the CIU’s investigation uncovered constitutional violations that justice moved ahead, ensuing within the vacated convictions of George Bell, Gary Johnson and Rohan Bolt.”

However critics be aware the transfer got here after Katz’s administration acquired overtures behind closed doorways from a number of Black neighborhood leaders, who had helped propel her into workplace. And legal justice reform advocates say there’s nonetheless loads of “justice” that must be “moved ahead.”

Not like Katz, some lawmakers should not shopping for the road that the trial prosecutors’ misconduct on this case was “inadvertent.” Just like the decide who launched the boys, they imagine this was deliberate, and was virtually actually not remoted. Now they need a assessment of all of the instances dealt with by Leventhal and Testagrossa. However Katz, who saved on quite a few veterans together with Leventhal, has to date refused to decide to such a assessment as a result of her workplace didn’t discover intentional misconduct happened.

Rachel Barkow, an NYU Regulation Professor, mentioned this refusal to probe the trial prosecutors’ different instances is a “main crimson flag,” a sign that some within the DA’s Workplace are involved about what else is perhaps discovered.

“These are actual folks’s lives. If there are people who find themselves sitting in jail as a result of these prosecutors did not have the appropriate moral compass and there was misconduct of their instances, they should get reduction,” mentioned Barkow. “If I had been a district lawyer and I discovered that out about somebody in my workplace, there could be no stone unturned to ensure that we knew that each conviction that particular person was concerned in nonetheless had integrity.”

From Previous Navy To Rikers Island

Within the early morning hours, simply days earlier than Christmas in 1996, Ira “Mike” Epstein was lifting up the steel safety shutter in entrance of his check-cashing retailer on Astoria Boulevard in East Elmhurst, as he did most mornings. He was with Charles Davis, an off-duty NYPD officer working safety to select up some additional money. However on this explicit day, a workforce of gunmen crept up on them and compelled Epstein and Davis inside. Then, one thing went incorrect earlier than the theft might go down. The gunmen shot Epstein and Davis virtually instantly, killing them, and fled with none cash.

With a double murder and one in every of their very own killed, the NYPD launched a large manhunt questioning tons of of residents within the space. Violent crime had fallen dramatically in New York Metropolis by the mid-90s, however the “unhealthy previous days” weren’t altogether over. Officer Davis was the sixth cop shot that yr and Mayor Giuliani, himself a former prosecutor, was keen to carry a press convention saying a breakthrough within the case.

One of many folks police swept up within the investigation was John Mark Bigweh, a petty drug supplier who suffered from auditory hallucinations of his useless mom and ideas of suicide. Underneath intense stress to resolve the case, police questioned the person over the following two days. What had began as a marijuana arrest finally was a confession concerning the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer murders. After one six-hour interrogation session, police took down an announcement from Bigweh: he mentioned he had served because the look-out and was working with 4 different males. One of many males who fired the pictures, he claimed, was somebody he knew from the neighborhood, George Bell.

George Bell was not the kind you’ll essentially determine for against the law like this—casing a retailer and executing an armed theft, not to mention a double homicide. Certain, he grew up with some folks like Bigweh in Corona, a neighborhood that had its fair proportion of drug dealing and road violence at the moment. However Bell’s household was steady and middle-class, the churchgoing kind. The 19-year-old lived in a brownstone together with his mom, grandmother, and two siblings.

Members of the family described Bell as a “mama’s boy,” although he wasn’t shy. He was an aspiring DJ, who favored to be the lifetime of the social gathering. By day, he folded garments and unpacked cargo as a inventory boy at Previous Navy. By night time, he was acting at neighborhood gatherings and passing out his mixtapes to different native rappers. It was the Golden Age of Hip Hop in Queens. Nas’ Illmatic had come out just a few years earlier. Ja Rule was about to change into a star.

“I actually had desires of truly entering into the music trade, possibly changing into a DJ on the radio, touring, taking part in for live shows and issues like that,” Bell informed Gothamist/WNYC.

He by no means obtained his likelihood. 4 days after the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer theft, NYPD officers, following Bigweh’s lead, confirmed up exterior Bell’s residence, arrested him, and dragged him to the 109th Precinct in Flushing. They handcuffed him to a wall for about 4 hours. Then at round 4:30 am they introduced him to an interrogation room by himself—no lawyer—and started asking him concerning the murders.

They didn’t report their five-hour interrogation.

“The one factor that’s on my thoughts is like, ‘Please God, please God, simply please ship me residence to my household as a result of I have no idea [what] I am doing right here proper now,” Bell remembered. “I don’t even know why I’m within the room. I don’t know why these individuals are questioning me.”

Bell had no legal report and no expertise with police interrogations like this. At first, he says he repeatedly denied any involvement within the assault. However that was not ok for the 2 detectives within the room. In response to the accounts Bell later gave his attorneys, one detective screamed, “You already know you probably did it,” earlier than punching him within the head and knocking him out of his chair. Bell says he pleaded for the detective to cease, however as a substitute the older man pounded him once more. Bell mentioned he appealed to the opposite detective within the room, whom he remembers sitting there, having a smoke. “Isn’t this police brutality?” he requested. “No, it isn’t,” the person replied.

Bell recalled the primary detective smacking him once more. “Let me know what I wish to know,” he says the investigator warned him, barking extra questions at him.

That’s when Bell says he lastly broke. He mentioned he was there. He mentioned he did the taking pictures. And each time he refused to say one thing or mentioned one thing they didn’t like, Bell says, the detectives had been there to immediate or assault him.

Practically twelve hours after Bell’s arrest and unrecorded interrogation, a prosecutor from the Queens DA’s Workplace arrived. Now they had been able to report George Bell’s confession.

The video exhibits Bell slumped in his chair together with his cheek resting on one hand. His braided hair is unraveling. The detective, whom Bell would later accuse of assault, sits within the room monitoring. At one level, after answering the prosecutor’s questions, Bell turns to the detective and asks, if he “‘did good?’”

At one other level within the video, Bell pauses for some time, sighs, then mumbles “being framed.” The prosecutor doesn’t comply with up. Bell then continues answering questions.

Regardless of Bell’s troubling feedback within the video and the following abuse allegations, which police denied, Queens prosecutors selected to push ahead with their case. District Legal professional Richard Brown, who had beforehand professed opposition to the loss of life penalty, charged Bell with capital homicide. At a listening to saying the costs, a crowd of NYPD officers cheered on the information.

The Prosecution Performs Hardball With The Protection

4 months after Bell’s arrest, information broke in one other case that Bell’s protection workforce thought might assist clear their consumer. One other off-duty officer in Queens had been shot in a theft, this time of an armored automobile.

Critically for Bell’s protection, the New York Each day Information reported that two gang members below arrest for the armored automobile heist had been additionally suspects within the “December ambush that killed a check-cashing agency proprietor and off-duty police officer Charles Davis.”

Bell’s protection attorneys, who already had doubts about their consumer being a hold-up man, requested prosecutors for what that they had on these gang members. The Queens DA’s Workplace denied having any proof pointing to different, uncharged suspects in Bell’s case. This was false.

Earlier than Bell’s trial, prosecutors had, in actual fact, acquired a police report about this very gang, a hoop of stickup artists referred to as “Pace Stick.” The report implicated the gang’s leaders, together with one of many two males named within the Each day Information story, within the planning of the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer theft.

Charles Testagrossa himself, the person who would later prosecute Bell, debriefed a detective who detailed the Pace Stick gang’s potential position within the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer murders. On one web page of his handwritten notes about that dialog, entitled “Pace Stick Notes,” Testagrossa jotted down {that a} key Pace Stick member “was driver in Davis murder,” referring to the off-duty officer, Charles Davis, killed within the check-cashing retailer.




Handwritten notes from a Queens ADA who prosecuted George Bell.

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Queens prosecutor Charles Testagrossa took notes throughout an interview with an NYPD detective referring to the Pace Stick gang’s potential involvement within the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer murders.


Reveals in courtroom submitting from attorneys for Bell, Johnson and Bolt.

The jury needed to discover George Bell and his alleged accomplices responsible past an affordable doubt. And details about different potential suspects might have raised considerations for some or the entire jurors, who would have needed to weigh whether or not George Bell and his fellow defendants had been as prone to have carried out the armed theft as a crew of seasoned criminals.

However at trial at any time when Bell’s attorneys tried to find out about or elevate the difficulty of the NYPD’s different suspects, Testagrossa and Leventhal objected, telling the decide they knew for a proven fact that these inquiries weren’t related.

Testagrossa informed the decide there was “no connection” between the armored automobile and the check-cashing retailer robberies. When the protection sought extra info on an NYPD fingerprint take a look at probing one other suspect, Leventhal mentioned this, too, was “irrelevant.” But, unbeknownst to the protection, that suspect was the very Pace Stick gang member talked about in Testagrossa’s handwritten notes as the motive force within the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer murders.

The trial prosecutors’ adamant denials to the courtroom efficiently saved the protection and the jury at nighttime about an alternate principle of the case involving different, credible suspects.

In lieu of any bodily proof tying Bell to the check-cashing retailer on Astoria Boulevard, prosecutors relied on Bell’s precinct confession, a single eye witness who recognized Bell after seeing the crime from greater than sixty yards away, and a jailhouse snitch, who claimed that Bell had spontaneously admitted to the homicide at Riker’s Island and sure secured a beneficiant sentencing advice.

Through the trial, Bell remained behind bars. Although his household visited him repeatedly to reassure him, Bell remembers having a nasty feeling. “My mom, she’s telling me, ‘Child, keep robust. You’re going to get out of this. Issues are going to get higher.’ Regardless that I felt like on the time, ‘I do not see how issues goes to get higher.’”

In the long run, Bell’s instinct was proper. The jurors voted to convict. Afterwards, a courtroom officer allowed his lawyer, Mitch Dinnerstein, to enter the cell in courtroom to see him. The younger man, he says, threw up. He was later sentenced to life with out parole.

“I Suppose We’ve Been Getting Away With This Sort of Stuff for a Lengthy Time”

The prosecutorial misconduct within the case of George Bell and his co-defendants was hardly an aberration for the Queens District Legal professional’s workplace. Between 1985 and 2017, judges admonished Queens prosecutors for misconduct a couple of hundred occasions, in line with an evaluation of appellate choices by Joel Rudin, a civil rights lawyer who has sued the DA’s Workplace a number of occasions.

A lot of this misconduct happened after District Legal professional Richard Brown took energy in 1991. Newly-obtained proof exhibits that lower than a decade into his tenure, Brown was nicely conscious of no less than a number of the misconduct occurring below his watch.

In 1998, after one other severe conviction was reversed in Queens on account of an appellate discovering of prosecutorial misconduct, Brown scribbled a be aware to one in every of his executives, which was discovered connected to the courtroom’s choice. “Jack – Let’s focus on easy methods to deal with – I feel we’ve been getting away with this sort of stuff for a very long time,” the District Legal professional wrote. The be aware was lastly launched to Rudin and several other different attorneys final month as a part of a lawsuit over prosecutorial misconduct that started 9 years in the past.

However whereas Brown might have been conscious of misconduct on the a part of his assistant DAs, his administration did little to formally punish these whom courts admonished for breaking the principles at trial. A Gothamist/WNYC investigation final yr recognized ten high-ranking Queens prosecutors who had been criticized by courts for severe misconduct however had no documented self-discipline of their personnel information. Amongst them: the junior counsel on the George Bell trial, Brad Leventhal.

After Bell’s conviction, Leventhal grew to become the lead prosecutor within the instances towards his co-defendants, Gary Johnson and Rohan Bolt. The attorneys in each instances assert that Leventhal dedicated additional misconduct by permitting Bigweh, the mentally-ill drug supplier who helped police break open the case, to offer false and deceptive testimony on the witness stand. Each males had been sentenced to fifty years to life.

On the day of Bolt’s sentencing, the final within the three high-profile instances, personnel data point out an elevation in Leventhal’s title from Assistant District Legal professional to Deputy Chief of the workplace’s Profession Legal Main Crimes bureau. Additionally they be aware that he acquired a $6,000 elevate the following day.




Gary Johnson, pictured on the left, and Rohan Bolt, pictured on the right, with their families. Both men were sentenced to fifty years to life following misconduct by Queens prosecutors.

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Gary Johnson, pictured on the left, and Rohan Bolt, pictured on the appropriate, with their households. Each males had been sentenced to fifty years to life following misconduct by Queens prosecutors.


Protection counsel for Johnson and Bolt.

From there, Leventhal rose to change into Chief of the Murder Trial Bureau. Simply 4 months into his promotion, an appellate courtroom reversed one in every of his convictions in an tried homicide case, citing “repeated cases of prosecutorial misconduct” throughout cross-examination and shutting arguments. However Queens District Legal professional Richard Brown allowed Leventhal to proceed supervising junior prosecutors’ instances, a number of of which additionally resulted in misconduct findings. In 2017, Leventhal earned yet one more promotion, Deputy Government of the Main Crimes Division.

Charles Testagrossa, the extra senior prosecutor in Bell’s case, additionally continued his ascent. The yr after Bell’s conviction, he moved up from a Bureau Chief place within the Queens DA’s Workplace to Deputy Government Assistant District Legal professional for the workplace’s Trial Division. There he helped assess allegations of wrongful convictions internally. He later took on one other govt place in Queens which he loved till 2016, the yr he grew to become a high govt within the Nassau County District Legal professional’s Workplace.

Life Inside

Whereas Bell’s two trial prosecutors continued to maneuver up on the earth, {the teenager} grew right into a veteran of the New York State jail system. He had to surrender his desires of a musical profession. Survival was now his major aim.

“Everyone wakes up in there day-after-day, they simply say, ‘Okay from sunup to sunset, let me simply make it out of my cell or make it again,’” he says. It was regular, he informed Gothamist/WNYC, to see males getting reduce up and stabbed, and to listen to them crying out at night time.

After his sentencing, Bell’s mom vowed she would stick by him, however she apprehensive he wouldn’t be robust sufficient to outlive jail. However Bell says his amiable disposition, which his household fretted over, proved to be a survival ability.

“They are saying generally while you’re in jail, the weak doesn’t survive, and in a way that’s true. However generally to be a robust particular person doesn’t imply you need to do bodily or heinous acts,” he informed Gothamist/WNYC. “Typically being robust might simply imply simply strolling with an upstanding method and being civil to lots of people.”

Regardless of his life sentence, Bell discovered methods to maneuver ahead. He grew to become a power-lifting coach, accomplished his G.E.D., and finally acquired a level in Household Regulation from Lehman School.

His resolve was strengthened by visits from his household. Lance Bell, George’s youthful brother, has childhood recollections of visiting jail: his older brother coming into the guests’ room beaming and asking him about how college was going. However then, he says, in the direction of the top of every go to, the temper would change. As they obtained their final drinks and sandwiches from the merchandising machines, the youthful brother would begin crying, questioning why his George was not coming again to Queens with them.

As he obtained older, Lance Bell says, his older sibling tried to keep up their relationship. He inspired Lance’s curiosity in poetry and would share his personal rhymes from jail, even performing them by the telephone. The youthful Bell says it took years for him to understand how motivated his brother was to seek out his approach residence.

“He was in that regulation library learning the regulation, don’t know nothing concerning the regulation, don’t know nothing about something that needed to do with courts,” Lance Bell informed Gothamist/WNYC. “However he made it his enterprise to go to the regulation library each single day, and discover out what’s happening together with his case.”

In 2004, but once more, the Queens DA informed Bell’s attorneys that there was “nothing additional to reveal.” By 2012, the DA had defeated all of Bell’s authorized challenges. In the meantime, Richard Brown continued to steer the workplace, the place he refused calls to kind a conviction integrity unit in contrast to a lot of his friends throughout the nation.

Irrespective of how a lot jailhouse lawyering he did, Bell couldn’t transfer the needle on his case. Years was a long time. The grandmother he lived with in Corona handed away. He attended her funeral in shackles and was not allowed to face near his household. His little brother Lance was now grown up. Between his job as a building driver in Brooklyn and the 2 children he needed to take care of, he had much less time to offer George. Through the years, just a few articles concerning the case got here out. And regardless that Lance tried passing out copies of the story to folks he met at work, nobody ever adopted up providing to assist. Nothing modified. Bell wakened on a regular basis residing below the burden of a life sentence.




The late Queens District Attorney Richard Brown.

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The late Queens District Legal professional Richard Brown.


Mary Altaffer/AP/Shutterstock

“Brother, You Made It”

20 years after he went to jail, Bell’s attorneys obtained a break. In its response to a wrongful conviction problem in one other case, the Queens DA unwittingly disclosed two police studies, which revealed that they had, in actual fact, been sitting on proof favorable to Bell’s protection the entire time. Particularly, the proof tying suspects from the Pace Stick gang to the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer murders.

Bell says that the invention reenergized him. “I informed myself I can’t actually really feel relieved till I truly stroll as a free man, however [in] the identical sense I began having extra hope. I began feeling nice. On a regular basis I get up I mentioned, ‘I actually have one thing to look ahead to.’”

Armed with the brand new proof, his authorized workforce bided it’s time and waited as a result of reform was within the air.

By the summer season of 2019, the Queens DA’s Workplace was headed in a brand new path. After a long time of management, Brown introduced in January of that yr that he wouldn’t search re-election then handed away just a few months later of issues from Parkinson’s illness. By that August, Queens borough president Melinda Katz, who ran on a promise of remodeling the workplace, had emerged because the undisputed winner.

With a brand new, reform-minded DA in Queens, Bell and his attorneys submitted a request that the convictions be overturned. Katz’s model new Conviction Integrity Unit started a assessment of the case, which turned up many extra undisclosed data, together with Testagrossa’s handwritten notes implicating a Pace Stick gang member within the Astoria Boulevard check-cashing retailer theft. After a number of months, Katz agreed to vacate the convictions of Bell, Johnson, and Bolt.




George Bell embraces his family after walking out of prison.

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George Bell embraces his household after strolling out of jail.


Klaus Enrique

Bell remembers being taken downstairs by guards and chuckling as he examined the bag he had been despatched with a swimsuit inside for him to placed on. “The officer was taking a look at me and I couldn’t even open up the bag as a result of the bag regarded so completely different from what I am used to utilizing on a regular basis. And I simply sat again and I simply saved laughing myself.”

After placing his black jacket and costume pants on, Bell adopted the guards to the doorway with Johnson and Bolt. For the primary time in twenty years he might now stroll ahead with out anybody there to inform him in any other case. “Once I lastly obtained an opportunity to take a stroll, I simply felt like all of the emotional stress, the shackles that I had on me,” he says. “It is like every step that I took, each shackle and issues that I went by was falling down and leaving a unclean path behind me.”

As he stepped exterior, Bell remembers trying up on the sky, which was clear and blue exterior the Inexperienced Haven Correctional Facility that day, his thoughts flooded with serenity. “I felt so at peace that day,” he says. “God was shining down on me. And I mentioned to myself, ‘Brother. you made it.’”

Bell’s “unusual odyssey,” as he calls it, is just not but over.

District Legal professional Katz says her investigation into the case is ongoing. She has till June 4th to resolve whether or not to retry the case or drop the indictments towards the three males. Then there’s the query of what occurs to the trial prosecutors, Leventhal and Testagrossa, who each resigned following the conviction holidays.

In courtroom to date, the Queens DA has mentioned Testagrossa and Leventhal’s false denials blocking the protection from studying concerning the different suspects had been made in “good religion.” Sticking to the road that their conduct was “inadvertent,” Katz has refused public requires a assessment of their different instances and convictions.

However Charles Linehan, a former Manhattan prosecutor who investigated the case for Bell’s exoneration workforce, argues that even when Testagrossa and Leventhal had been initially at nighttime concerning the different suspects, as soon as the protection repeatedly requested about it at trial, that they had an obligation to hunt after which inform the reality.

“It’s important to keep in mind this was a capital case. A person was actually on trial for his life. And as a prosecutor and an officer of the courtroom, you may’t simply make stuff up,” he mentioned. “It must be grounded within the fact, particularly the place your representations are relied upon by the courtroom. Right here, that they had the impact of sending a person to jail for against the law he didn’t commit. And that’s on them.”

Bell didn’t return to Corona, Queens after his launch. He’s now residing on Lengthy Island together with his fiancée, Burnette Nay Inexperienced. The 2 first began relationship in highschool and stayed in contact all through his time in jail. If Melinda Katz dismisses his indictment in June, he hopes to start out a profession in public talking and legal justice reform. He’s additionally trying ahead to beginning a household of his personal.

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